Micro-CT of a D-Cell Battery

Micro-CT of a Battery

Micro-CT is a powerful tool that allows researchers to look inside objects non-destructively so that the sample can be used for further tests.  In this case, a micro-CT of a battery was performed using our Bruker SkyScan 1275 micro-CT system.  The D-Cell battery was scanned and could then be depleted later, or in steps, to see the affects discharging the battery has on the internal structure of the battery.  This ability to perform further tests on samples is another advantage of using a micro-CT system to investigate internal structures.

How Batteries Work

Alkaline batteries—portable, self-contained, chemical power packs that give us a steady supply of electrical energy wherever we need it—power our mobile world, from disposable cameras to portable CD players and incandescent flashlights. The makeup of batteries has changed slightly over the years, but the concept of dry cell batteries dates back to 1868, when French scientist Georges Leclanché invented a battery that later led to the first dry cell battery.

Batteries work by slowly releasing electric current due to a potential difference generated by chemical reactions. The key components of a battery are a positive electrode or cathode, a negative electrode or anode, and a separator to keep the electrodes apart. The electrodes are always made from two dissimilar materials that both conduct electricity. One of the materials “likes” to give up electrons while the other “likes” to receive them. In the alkaline battery we scanned, the zinc and hydroxide anode react to make zinc oxide, water, and give up electrons. These electrons have an attraction to the manganese dioxide cathode of the battery. Thus, they flow outside the battery to power a device, and then back into the battery, completing the circuit. These returning electrons, along with the reaction of manganese dioxide and water, form manganese (III) oxide. When all the zinc is used up to create zinc oxide, the battery is spent1.

To take a look at what is inside a basic alkaline battery, we used the newest SkyScan 1275 for fast, non-destructive micro-CT imaging.

Battery Anatomy

nov-2016-iom-battery-v-3-2
Figure 2. Internal anatomy of a D-cell alkaline battery after scanning on the SkyScan 1275 system

The alkaline battery we scanned has a steel casing that houses the components required for the electrochemical reactions that produce electrical energy. Just inside the steel casing is manganese dioxide power, which acts as the cathode (where electrons return back to the battery). Next is a paper separator that is soaked with potassium hydroxide. This acts as an electrolyte, which is a stable solution to prevent the mixture of the manganese dioxide and zinc powder. On the other side of the paper separator is the zinc powder with potassium hydroxide, which acts as the anode (where electrons leave the battery). The collector pin, which is usually brass, carries the electrons outside the battery to power the electric device1, 2.

The SkyScan 1275 Micro-CT Scan of a D-Cell Alkaline Battery

Using the fast SkyScan 1275 Micro-CT scanner we were able to non-destructively visualize the inner workings of an entire battery at a fraction of the time required by past scanners, which would have taken about eight hours to scan a similar D-cell battery at the same resolution. With the SkyScan 1275, the scan time is reduced to about two hours while retaining exceptional image quality. The quality of the micro-CT scan of the battery allows us to see the full anatomy of this D-Cell.  An automatic sample changer can be added to increase the sample throughput, even into weekends.

Hopefully, you have learned more about the workings of batteries and we hope you will think of us the next you use a battery-powered device. If you have a cool Micro-CT application, we would be glad to highlight it as the next image of the month. If you have any questions about micro-CT or the instruments we provide, we would be happy to discuss them with you.

Feel free to contact us by calling 610-366-7103 or by e-mailing brandon@microphotonics.com

Micro-CT SCAN SPECIFICATIONS

System

SkyScan 1275 Micro-CT

Voltage

100kV

Current

100µA

Pixel Size

25um

Rotation Step:

0.2

Total Scan Time

02:19:24 (HH:MM:SS)

Software

NRecon, DataViewer, CTVox

Location

Micro Photonics Imaging Laboratory, Allentown, PA

 

Works Cited

 

 NOTE: Because we were scanning a battery with metal and other high-density material, using the system’s  copper filter served to block out lower energy X-rays, limit X-ray scattering, and cut down excess noise to provide the best contrast for this scan. Alternatively, we could have added a brass filter to handle the high-density materials. (See our Tip of the Month for November 2016 for the steps to follow to add an additional filter to the SkyScan 1275.)

 

Related Products

Related Articles

Call Now Button

Coming Soon:

Customer access to tips and instructional videos, method notes, tutorials, application notes, and other content to support your research.

Employment

While we are not currently looking to fill a specific position at Micro Photonics, if helping others advance their research is something you are passionate about, then feel free to send us your resume so that we can keep it for further considerations when a position does become available.

Please submit resumes to: info@microphotonics.com

Micro Photonics Inc.
1550 Pond Road, STE 110
Allentown, PA 18104

Events

Due to Covid-19 restrictions, we will not be attending tradeshows in the near future. We are participating in webinars and virtual tradeshows and will post links to those as they are available.

Privacy Policy

What information do we collect? We collect information from you when you register on our site, place an order, subscribe to our newsletter or fill out a form. When ordering or registering on our site, as appropriate, you may be asked to enter your: name, e-mail address, mailing address, phone number or credit card information. You may, however, visit our site anonymously.
What do we use your information for? Any of the information we collect from you may be used in one of the following ways:

; To personalize your experience (your information helps us to better respond to your individual needs).

; To improve customer service (your information helps us to more effectively respond to your customer service requests and support needs).

; To process transactions. Your information, whether public or private, will not be sold, exchanged, transferred, or given to any other company for any reason whatsoever, without your consent, other than for the express purpose of delivering the purchased product or service requested.

; To send periodic emails .The email address you provide for order processing, will only be used to send you information and updates pertaining to your order.Note: If at any time you would like to unsubscribe from receiving future emails, we include detailed unsubscribe instructions at the bottom of each email.

Terms and Conditions

Terms of Service for www.microphotonics.com

Introduction. Welcome to www.microphotonics.com. This website is owned and operated by Micro Photonics Inc. By visiting our website and accessing the information, resources, services, products, and tools we provide, you understand and agree to accept and adhere to the following terms and conditions as stated in this policy (hereafter referred to as ‘User Agreement’), along with the terms and conditions as stated in our Privacy Policy (please refer to the Privacy Policy section below for more information).

This agreement is in effect as of October 25, 2018.

We reserve the right to change this User Agreement from time to time without notice. You acknowledge and agree that it is your responsibility to review this User Agreement periodically to familiarize yourself with any modifications. Your continued use of this site after such modifications will constitute acknowledgment and agreement of the modified terms and conditions.

Responsible Use and Conduct. By visiting our website and accessing the information, resources, services, products, and tools we provide for you, either directly or indirectly (hereafter referred to as ‘Resources’), you agree to use these Resources only for the purposes intended as permitted by (a) the terms of this User Agreement, (b) the terms of any applicable confidentiality, non-disclosure, or other agreement between you and a third party, and (c) applicable laws, regulations and generally accepted online practices or guidelines.

US Partner Form